Historical Cities

Krakow

Tourist challenges of Krakow
There is no doubt that Krakow has in recent years become a branded Polish city with a high level of recognition among tourists. The evidence for this is not only the number of visitors - 12.9 million in 2017, but also the measurable economic effects. According to research carried out by a team of experts under the auspices of the Malopolska Tourist Organization, the induced value of GDP produced by the tourism industry constitutes 8.27% of the total GDP of Krakow. More than 40,000 jobs are connected to the tourism economy of Krakow, which means that the phenomenon applies to one in every ten professionally active Krakow residents. The share of taxes and fees generated by the tourist industry in the city's income amounts to 5.25%. Our visitors are mostly Poles, not foreigners (9,85 million, as compared to 3,05 million in 2017). The growing network of air connections, the increase in the number of beds, the growing effect of recommendations, distributed via social media, will certainly strengthen the reputation of Krakow. The expected outcome will be a further increase in tourism. In cities, especially those with a historical zone focused on a relatively small area, new challenges are emerging that are associated with the sustainable development of tourism. How can we reconcile the opportunity for a tourist to take advantage of a stay at his own discretion with a sense of comfort and the quality of life of residents? The sum of the feelings of both groups is to create a local atmosphere in the place that is now and in the future will be the most sought-after value by residents and visitors. The excess of visitors, the gentrification of tourist districts, the functioning of public transport and new forms of economic activity in the field of sharing economy are perceived as a common challenge for historical cities, especially by the residents of the centre. Therefore, the need arises to develop an appropriate model of a sustainable tourism economy in cities. The partnership of public administration, local residents, non-governmental organizations, economic local government and entrepreneurs is fundamental here. One of the proposed directions is the participation of residents in creating personalized offers for visitors and members of the local community, including in the area of creative industries, assuming that visitors will visit other places than the historical zones of the city. The exchange of experience during a conference in the form of professional discussion will be, in our opinion, an important step towards the development of solutions serving the model of a sustainable economy for the benefit of Krakow residents and the residents of other historical cities.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the Netherlands' capital and financial, cultural, and creative center, with more than 850.000 inhabitants. Amsterdam is known for the canals that criss-cross the city, its impressive architecture and more than 1,500 bridges are a magnet for over 4 million tourists annually. The city has a heritage back to the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century, as well as a diverse art scene, and a bustling nightlife.

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Bregenz

Bregenz has about 28,000 inhabitants and its roots back to Roman times. The city was originally founded by the Romans in 15 BC, when it was known as Brigantium. Bregenz is located at the northern edge of the Alps, on the Lake Constance (the Bodensee). A 2,000-year-old city with a characteristic tower of St. Marcin, rising in the medieval center, attracts lovers of modern architecture. Outstanding architects such as Hans Hollein, Jean Nouvel and Peter Zumthor and the circle of "Architects of Vorarlberg" have significantly influenced the image of the city in recent years, A great cultural attraction is the Bregenz Festival, during which outstanding directors for almost half a century present on the stage on the lake exceptional stagings of the best operas - with the accompaniment of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. In addition to the festival period, hundreds of events such as exhibitions, concerts and even "Bregencka Wiosna", a renowned international dance festival, take place in the city every year.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh is Scotland’s capital city, located in the country’s Central Belt region. With a population of more than 500,000 (1.36 million in the wider city region), and more than 4 million visitors annually, Edinburgh marries a buzzing cosmopolitan and international atmosphere with the very best of what makes Scotland unique. Old volcanoes throughout the city ensure a dramatic and natural setting with a wildness crowned by the imposing and ancient Edinburgh Castle, located within the city centre. Beneath its guard, the city combines medieval relics, Georgian grandeur and a powerful layer of modern life with contemporary avant-garde. Ancient royal residences, gothic churches and fascinating historical buildings rub shoulders with some of the best of modern, innovative architecture such as the Scottish Parliament Building and the recently renovated National Museum of Scotland. Known to many as ‘Auld Reekie’, ‘the Athens of the North’ or simply – to the locals – as ‘Embrah’, it hosts some of the UK’s finest restaurants, shopping experiences, pubs, and nightlife alongside an unrivalled and world-famous year-round festival programme. Hogmanay (Scottish New Year) kicks off the festivities while August brings the Royal Military Tattoo, the International Festival and the Edinburgh Festival Fringe – the world’s largest festival of the arts. Edinburgh’s Old and New Towns combined are the basis of the city centre’s status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, while the city’s four universities and their long held tradition of excellence in medicine, banking, education, technology and a whole host of other sectors are the foundation of what has made Edinburgh a hub of innovation, thought leadership and progress for hundreds of years.

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